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NO SAFE DOSE OF RADIATION - REFERENCES


Government, university and independently sponsored studies have all shown that there is no safe level of radiation exposure - the lowest dose damages our health.

The National Academy of Sciences 2005 report thorough review of available biological and biophysical data supports a "linear, no-threshold" (LNT) risk model, which says that the smallest dose of low-level ionizing radiation has the potential to cause an increase in health risks to humans. In the past, some researchers have argued that the LNT model exaggerates adverse health effects, while others have said that it underestimates the harm. The preponderance of evidence supports the LNT model, this new report says. To access report see listing below.
 

Dr. John Gofman - eminent nuclear chemist and cardiologist
wrote the following letter, May 11, 1999
 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY
BERKELEY
, CALIFORNIA  94720

LETTER OF CONCERN

To Whom It May Concern,

During 1942, I led "The Plutonium Group" at the University of California, Berkeley, which managed to isolate the first milligram of plutonium from irradiated uranium. [Plutonium-239 had previously been discovered by Glenn Seaborg and Edwin McMillan]. During subsequent decades, I have studied the biological effects of ionizing  radiation---- including the alpha particles emitted by the decay of plutonium.

By any reasonable standard of biomedical proof, there is no safe dose, which means that just one decaying radioactive atom can produce permanent mutation in a cell's genetic molecules [Gofman 1990: "Radiation Induced Cancer from Low-Dose Exposure"]. For alpha particles, the logic of no safe dose was confirmed experimentally in 1997 by Tom K. Hei and co-workers at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York [Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [USA] Vol. 94, pp. 3765-3770, April 1997, "Mutagenic Effects of A Single and an Exact Number of Alpha Particles in Mammilian Cells."]

It follows from such evidence that citizens worldwide have a strong biological basis for opposing activities which produce an appreciable risk of exposing humans and others to plutonium and other radioactive pollution at any level. The fact that humans cannot escape exposure to ionizing radiation from various natural sources ---which may well account  for a  large share of humanity's inherited afflictions- is no reason to let human activities INCREASE  exposure to ionizing  radiation. The fact that ionizing radiation is a mutagen was first demonstrated in 1927 by Herman Joseph Muller, and subsequent evidence has shown it to be a mutagen of unique potency. Mutation is the basis not only for inherited afflictions, but also for cancer.

 Very truly yours,

 [signed]
 John W. Gofman, M.D., Ph D
 Professor Emeritus of Molecular and Cell Biology


References 

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1990: John W. Gofman, Radiation-Induced Cancer from Low-Dose Exposure. ISBN 0-932682-89-8. The entire monograph is online at www.ratical.org/radiation/CNR/RIC/ 

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1995: Natl Radiological Protection Bd (Britain), Risk of Radiation-Induced Cancer at 
Low Doses... ISBN 0-85951-386-6. 
 

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1997: Tom K. Hei et al, "Mutagenic Effects of a Single and Exact Number of Alpha 
Particles...", Proceeding of the Natl Acad Sci Vol.94, No.8: 3765-3770. The full text is 
online at www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/94/8/3765 

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1999: John W. Gofman, Radiation from Medical Procedures in the Pathogenesis of Cancer 
and Ischemic Heart Disease... ISBN 0-932682-97-9. The first 100 pages plus the Table of 
Contents and References are online at www.ratical.org/radiation/CNR/RMP/ 

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2000: Michele M. Doody et al, "Breast Cancer Mortality after Diagnostic Radiography," 
Spine Vol.25, No.2: 2052-2063. 

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2000: Betsy M. Sutherland et al, "Clustered DNA Damages Induced... in Human Cells by Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation," Proceedings of the Natl Acad Sci Vol.97, No.1: 103-108. The 
full text is online at www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/97/1/103 
See also Sutherland 2000, "Clustered Damages and Total Lesions Induced in DNA by Ionizing 
Radiation..." Biochemistry Vol.39: 8026-8031. 

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2001: David J. Brenner et al, "Estimated Risks of Radiation-Induced Fatal Cancer from 
Pediatric CT," Amer. Journal of Roentgenology Vol.176, No.2: 289-296. Full text is online at 
www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/176/2/289 
 

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2005: National Academy of Sciences report, Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII - Phase 2). Available on line at http://national-academies.org

    

Websites on Radiation and Health

STAR Foundation www.noradiation.org 
STAR sponsors symposiums on radiation and health. Transcripts are on the web, click on 
symposium low level radiation and health.


Committee for Nuclear Responsibility www.ratical.com 
Dr. John Gofman is one of the more prominent doctors in the field
Website contains extensive research and articles


More about radiation health effects

 

 

PilgrimWatch.org